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Dr Lockwood’s practice is consistently evidence-based and theoretically grounded. Some of the primary theories used within her coaching practice are outlined below.

Positive Psychology

Positive psychology has its roots in humanistic psychology, which emerged in the twentieth century as a reaction to the focus on pathology within mainstream therapies. Rather than analysing psychological problems, these branches are concerned with human well-being and flourishing. It is, therefore, not surprising that coaching is often described as 'applied positive psychology'.

Theories and techniques of positive psychology are used within coaching sessions in order to assist people to

* build positive relationships

* enhance self-regulation

* create self-concordant goals

* get into a 'flow' state 

* explore meaning and purpose

* identify and use personal strengths

* train attention 

* form healthy behaviours

Human diversity is extraordinary. At Apricity, a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is never taken. Any interventions adopted by clients are the result of collaborative dialogue, and a nuanced approach to their unique situation.

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Self Determination Theory

As one of the leading theories on human motivation, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is grounded in the assumption that humans are intrinsically inclined towards growth and well-being. However, in order to support these tendencies, three primary psychological needs must be met; autonomy (the need to engage in interesting, valued activities with sense of choice), competence (the need to exercise one’s capacities and achieve outcomes), and relatedness (the need to experience connectedness with others). SDT is concerned with the individual in relationship to his or her environment, and the understanding that this dialectic is capable of either thwarting or nurturing growth.


Employing SDT as a coaching framework helps to support the conditions for the experience of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, both within and outside of the coaching process. As such, it is used to develop self-understanding, enhance self-regulation, and build motivation and engagement.

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Systems Theory

Unfortunately, it is a tendency of many coaches to think simplistically; setting goals then waiting for the cause-effect relationships to work its magic. Linear models of coaching (A+B=Result) do not take into account the context in which their client is situated, and thus fail to explore the multiple invisible 'strings' attached, pulling and shaping behaviours. 

Highly qualified coaches understand and utilise the principle of systems theory. They understand that complex adaptive systems - including any group of humans - are characterised by unpredictability. This understanding allows both coach and client to be more flexible in their sessions, and thus open to the spontaneous emergence of previously unseen obstacles, goals, and solutions.   

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Cognitive Behavioural Coaching

Cognitive-behavioural coaching (CBC) is an evidence-based methodology, representing a combination of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and solution-focussed coaching. It has been described as “an integrative approach which combines the use of cognitive, behavioural, imaginal,  and problem solving techniques and strategies within a cognitive-behavioural framework to enable coachees to achieve their realistic goals” (Palmer & Szymanska, 2007, p.86).


Generally speaking, CBC employs the principles of CBT within a non-clinical framework, and as such tends to adapt traditional cognitive-behavioural constructs to better suit coaching’s solution-focused approach.


Due to the solution-focussed and non-clinical nature of coaching, most CBC models extend traditional CBT techniques by incorporating a clear goal or vision of an ideal future, which is identified before thoughts, actions and behaviours are explored.

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